ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT HERNIA
WHAT IS HERNIA?
A hernia occurs when an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it in place. It occurs when an internal organ or other body part protrudes through the wall of muscle or tissue that normally contains it. This article discusses all hernia types and their treatments. For example, the intestines may break through a weakened area in the abdominal wall. Well, in the course of your reading, you will get to know all about a hernia and the causes of hernia.
Many hernias occur in the abdomen between your chest and hips, but they can also appear in the upper thigh and groin areas.
Most hernias aren’t immediately life-threatening, but they don’t go away on their own. Sometimes they can require surgery to prevent dangerous complications.
- Signs and Symptoms of a hernia
The most common symptom of a hernia is a bulge or lump in the affected area. For example, in the case of an inguinal hernia, you may notice a lump on either side of your pubic bone where your groin and thigh meet.
You may find that the lump disappears when you’re lying down. You’re more likely to feel the lump through touch when you’re standing up, bending down, or coughing. Discomfort or pain in the area around the lump may also be present.
Some types of hernia, such as Hiatal hernias, can have more specific symptoms. These can include things like heartburn, trouble swallowing, and chest pain.
In many cases, it has no symptoms. You may not know you have a hernia unless it shows up during a routine physical or a medical exam for an unrelated problem.
Causes of Hernia
The cause of some hernias cannot be pinpointed, but many result from increased pressure within the abdomen, a weak spot in the abdominal wall, or a combination of the two. The weakened abdominal wall may be present as a birth defect or develop over time from injury or surgery. Age also plays a factor as hernias are more likely to develop over the age of 50.
In adults, hiatus hernias commonly develop in pregnant women and overweight people due to the increased pressure on the abdominal wall. Other stressors may include constipation (straining while having a bowel movement), lifting heavy weights, or prolonged coughing or sneezing.
In men, an inguinal hernia will commonly develop in the groin, specifically in a region called the inguinal canal. This is where the spermatic cord and blood vessels to the testicles pass out of the abdominal cavity and into the scrotum. A weakness in the abdominal tissues at this point can allow a loop of bowel to pass out of the abdomen by following the path of the spermatic cord (indirect inguinal hernia) or between the opening into the inguinal canal and the pubic bone (direct inguinal hernia).
In women, inguinal hernias are rare but can develop where the tissue that binds the uterus exits from the abdomen and joins with the tissue surrounding the vaginal opening.
Umbilical hernia may be present at birth. In adults, they may develop when there is a weakness in the tissue in the umbilical area combined with increased pressure on the abdominal wall.
Common forms of hernia
- Inguinal hernia: In men, the inguinal canal is a passageway for the spermatic cord and blood vessels leading to the testicles. In women, the inguinal canal contains the round ligament that gives support for the womb. In an inguinal hernia, fatty tissue or a part of the intestine pokes into the groin at the top of the inner thigh. This is the most common type and affects men more often than women.
- Femoral hernia: Fatty tissue or part of the intestine protrudes into the groin at the top of the inner thigh. Femoral hernias are much less common than inguinal hernias and mainly affect older women.
- Umbilical hernia: Fatty tissue or part of the intestine pushes through the abdomen near the navel (belly button).
- Hiatal (hiatus) hernia: Part of the stomach pushes up into the chest cavity through an opening in the diaphragm (the horizontal sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen).
- Ventral hernia
- A ventral hernia happens when tissue bulges through an opening in the muscles of your abdomen. You may notice that the size of this disease reduces when you’re lying down.
- Although a ventral hernia can be present from birth, it’s more commonly acquired at some point during your lifetime. Common factors in ventral hernia formation include things like obesity, strenuous activity, and pregnancy.
Other types of hernias include:
- Incisional hernia: Tissue protrudes through the site of an abdominal scar from a remote abdominal or pelvic operation.
- Epigastric hernia: Fatty tissue protrudes through the abdominal area between the navel and lower part of the sternum (breastbone).
- Spigelian hernia: The intestine pushes through the abdomen at the side of the abdominal muscle, below the navel.
- Diaphragmatic: Organs in the abdomen move into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm.
How to prevent hernia
General hernia prevention strategies include avoiding activities that cause abdominal strain (e.g., lifting heavy weights), and if you’re overweight, losing weight.
In most hiatus hernia cases, treatment consists of relieving the accompanying heartburn with medication and modifying the diet. Losing weight is also recommended as a way to help relieve pressure. If you experience discomfort at night, it may help to sleep with the upper part of your body propped up on pillows or with the head of your bed raised. It is important not to eat for several hours before lying down so that the stomach has time to empty. Standing straight rather than slouching is also a good idea. Surgery is uncommon and is reserved as a last resort for severe cases if medical and dietary management hasn’t helped.
If your hernia is growing larger or causing pain, your surgeon may decide it’s best to operate. They may repair your hernia by sewing the hole in the abdominal wall closed during surgery. This is commonly done by patching the hole with surgical mesh.
Hernias can be repaired with either open or laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic surgery uses a tiny camera and miniaturized surgical equipment to repair the site of the effect using only a few small incisions. It’s also less damaging to the surrounding tissue.
During open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision close to the site of the hernia and then pushes the bulging tissue back into the abdomen. They then sew the area shut, sometimes reinforcing it with surgical mesh. Finally, they close the incision.
Not all these diseases are suitable for laparoscopic surgery. If your hernia requires an open surgical repair, your surgeon will work with you to determine which type of surgery is best for your condition.
The future of stem cell therapy in hernia and abdominal wall repair
Stem cell therapies have been proposed in preclinical trials as new treatment options in abdominal wall repair. Materials and Methods This work lists sources of feasible cell lines and the current status of literature and provides a cautious outlook into future developments. Special attention was paid to translational issues and practicability in a complex field.
Conclusion: Cell-based therapies will play a role in the clinical setting in the future. Regulatory and ethical issues need to be addressed as well as the proof of cost-effectiveness.
Hernia and pregnancy
If you’re pregnant and think that you have a hernia, be sure to see your doctor. They can evaluate it and determine if it poses any health risks.
Often, a repair can wait until after delivery. However, if a small of it,` that’s present before or during the pregnancy begins to get larger or cause discomfort, surgery may be advised to repair it. The preferred time to do this is during the second trimester.
Hernias that have been previously repaired may come back with later pregnancies. This is because pregnancy places a strain on abdominal muscle tissue that may have been weakened by surgery.
This disease can also occur following a cesarean delivery, also known as a C-section. During a cesarean delivery, an incision is made into the abdomen and uterus. The baby is then delivered through these incisions.
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